Mr Ravenscroft believes he would have had a narrower perspective if he had become a management consultant. Teaching also helped him develop a willingness to take risks — the hard way. “If you stand in front of 30 teenagers who won’t hold back when you’re doing something wrong it makes you willing to try things.”
Length of program: 13 to 15 months
More recently, however, General Motors made a self-driving car in 1958 that adjusted its steering wheel based on the alternating currents given off by a wire placed inside the road. While the vehicle did actually drive itself, it does not qualify as the first autonomous vehicle because it depended on wires placed inside the ground. The world's first autonomous vehicle was made by S. Tsugawa and several of his colleagues at Japan's Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. However, German engineer Ernst Dickinson is regarded as the pioneer of the autonomous car. In 1987, he developed the VaMoRs which was capable of traveling more than 90 kilometers per hour (55 mph) for about 20 kilometers (12 mi). Seven years later, he made the VaMP, which could recognize road signs, know its own position in a lane, detect other vehicles, and even decide when to change lanes. And a year after that, he and his team made another autonomous vehicle which traveled from Germany to Denmark. The vehicle had a maximum speed of 180 kilometers per hour (111 mph) and was controlled by a human for about 5 percent of the journey.
Mr Williams’ medium to long-term view is arguably more gloomy than that of Mr Baweja. He believes the 25-30 year period during which growth in global exports far exceeded that of global GDP, represented a “surge of globalisation that has come to an end”. In other words, the current slowdown in trade growth is structural, not cyclical.
At the start of the year, the ruling Communist party set a target of 6 per cent growth in trade for this year but total trade has now fallen by just over 8 per cent in the first ten months of 2015 compared with the same period a year earlier.
Will businesses finally shed their caution?